Here's a simple trick for getting more people to read what you write: write in spoken language.
Something comes over most people when they start writing. They write in a different language than they'd use if they were talking to a friend. The sentence structure and even the words are different. No one uses “pen” as a verb in spoken English. You'd feel like an idiot using “pen” instead of “write” in a conversation with a friend.
pen 在书面语中也有「写」的含义。如：He penned a letter to the local paper.
The last straw for me was a sentence I read a couple days ago:The mercurial Spaniard himself declared: “After Altamira, all is decadence.“It's from Neil Oliver's A History of Ancient Britain. I feel bad making an example of this book, because it's no worse than lots of others. But just imagine calling Picasso “the mercurial Spaniard” when talking to a friend. Even one sentence of this would raise eyebrows in conversation. And yet people write whole books of it.
The mercurial Spaniard himself declared: “After Altamira, all is decadence."
这句话出自 Neil Oliver 的书籍 A History of Ancient Britain。恕我冒昧，其实我并不想拿这本书来举例。毕竟比起许多其它的书来说，它还不算太糟。不过请尝试想像一下，当你和朋友吹牛时，把毕加索（Picasso） 称之为「The mercurial Spaniard（变幻莫测的西班牙人）」会是怎样一个场景。聊天时，这样的话哪怕只有一句也会让人感到诧异，人们却就是用着类似这样的句子写了整本书。
The last/final straw 忍无可忍，使人最终崩溃的一击
Ok, so written and spoken language are different. Does that make written language worse?
If you want people to read and understand what you write, yes. Written language is more complex, which makes it more work to read. It's also more formal and distant, which gives the reader's attention permission to drift. But perhaps worst of all, the complex sentences and fancy words give you, the writer, the false impression that you're saying more than you actually are.
You don't need complex sentences to express complex ideas. When specialists in some abstruse topic talk to one another about ideas in their field, they don't use sentences any more complex than they do when talking about what to have for lunch. They use different words, certainly. But even those they use no more than necessary. And in my experience, the harder the subject, the more informally experts speak. Partly, I think, because they have less to prove, and partly because the harder the ideas you're talking about, the less you can afford to let language get in the way.
Informal language is the athletic clothing of ideas.
I'm not saying spoken language always works best. Poetry is as much music as text, so you can say things you wouldn't say in conversation. And there are a handful of writers who can get away with using fancy language in prose. And then of course there are cases where writers don't want to make it easy to understand what they're saying—in corporate announcements of bad news, for example, or at the more bogus end of the humanities. But for nearly everyone else, spoken language is better.
It seems to be hard for most people to write in spoken language. So perhaps the best solution is to write your first draft the way you usually would, then afterward look at each sentence and ask “Is this the way I'd say this if I were talking to a friend?” If it isn't, imagine what you would say, and use that instead. After a while this filter will start to operate as you write. When you write something you wouldn't say, you'll hear the clank as it hits the page.
Before I publish a new essay, I read it out loud and fix everything that doesn't sound like conversation. I even fix bits that are phonetically awkward; I don't know if that's necessary, but it doesn't cost much.
This trick may not always be enough. I've seen writing so far removed from spoken language that it couldn't be fixed sentence by sentence. For cases like that there's a more drastic solution. After writing the first draft, try explaining to a friend what you just wrote. Then replace the draft with what you said to your friend.
so far removed from = to be very different from
People often tell me how much my essays sound like me talking. The fact that this seems worthy of comment shows how rarely people manage to write in spoken language. Otherwise everyone's writing would sound like them talking.
If you simply manage to write in spoken language, you'll be ahead of 95% of writers. And it's so easy to do: just don't let a sentence through unless it's the way you'd say it to a friend.
如果你能想办法用口语去写作，那你就超过了 95% 的写作者了！这做起来也非常简单——确保你写下的每一句话都像是在和读者聊天。
Thanks to Patrick Collison and Jessica Livingston for reading drafts of this.